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GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION

The geographical coordinates of the canton of Heredia measures, in the south, are given by 09 ° 59 '23 "north latitude and 84 ° 09' 16" west longitude, on the north side, in the district Varablanca, by 10 ° 10 '47 "north latitude and 84 ° 02' 46" west longitude.

The maximum width in the south of the canton where districts are located Heredia, Mercedes, San Francisco and Ulloa, is six kilometers northwest-southeast direction, from the bridge over Dry Creek on Assumption Street to the bridge over river Virilla on National Highway No. 1, which connects the cities of Heredia and San José.

The maximum width Varablanca district, in the northern part of the canton, is thirty-six miles in a northwest-southeast direction from the confluence of Quebrada Volcano Relief and the river, about three hundred meters to the headwaters of the river above, to the northern slope of the hill Zurquí.

HISTORICAL

In pre-Columbian times the territory which now belongs to the canton of Heredia, was inhabited by aborigines of huetar kingdom called the West, which at the beginning of the Conquest of Cacique were Garabito.

Heredia The primitive population that originated in the early eighteenth century, had two seats. The first Alvirilla site, in what is now the neighborhood of Villa Barreal Lagunilla Precinct 4 Ulloa, canton of Heredia. In this place was built, in 1706, parish aid, which tried to raise a village, around the humble and rustic chapel was built. Because the place of Alvirilla not meet the minimum conditions necessary to establish an appropriate human settlement, because there was problems with the supply of drinking water between 1716 and 1717 the chapel was moved north to a hilly area, the aborigines who inhabited the region called Cubujuquí, the same which houses the current settlement of the city of Heredia. There arose a thatched church whose construction led the priest Don Francisco Rivas and Velazco, who along with the priest Manuel Lopez Rabbit, are considered as founders of Heredia.

In 1719 it is known, by a report from the provincial governor Don Diego de la Haya Fernández, the village was made up of eight thatched houses and a church, the latter consisted of a tiled roof galley named chapel.

The town Cubujuquí, in 1751, had twenty houses of adobe and tile, sixty nine thatched huts, forming four east-west streets and five north-south. The territory covered an area of ​​about fifteen miles wide and fourteen long, in which fifty-seven had adobe houses and three hundred thirty-seven straw.

In order to increase the population of Cubujuquí, Ordinary Mayor Tomas Lopez del Corral, ordered in 1755, under severe penalties, to the inhabitants of the Valley of Barva to build their houses in Cubujuquí. The importance that was acquiring the population, his neighbors did the same year initiated efforts to to be granted the title of town to it. Eight years later, on 1 July 1763 was erected VIIa of the Immaculate Conception of Cubujuquí de Heredia. Established the Villa, the following year was appointed the first City Hall.

Years after failing to meet the inhabitants of Heredia with a series of commitments and obligations attached to the title acquired, Captain General of the Kingdom of Guatemala Matias de Galvez, the November 23, 1779, revoked the validity of the title.

Nevertheless, the population of Heredia to be the oldest in the Western sector of the Central Valley, began to be called Villa Vieja, whose name was arbitrary. This practice is widespread in other major towns of the region so that the governor of the province of Costa Rica Don Tomas de Acosta, in 1801, forbade the inhabitants of the same, the use of the name of villas, without being legally. Heredia For Old Village decided that henceforth will be called Immaculate Conception of Heredia.

The City of Heredia was established based on the constitution promulgated in Cadiz, Spain, on May 19, 1812, became operational in January of the following year, which was integrated with the following representatives, Don Blas Perez, Mayor, as aldermen Messrs. Pedro Antonio López, Mariano Rodríguez, Manuel José Bogantes, Tomas Ugalde, Antonio Rodriguez Marcelino Flores, Jose Antonio Gutierrez, Cipriano Perez, Valentin Arias, Juan José Fonseca and Gordino Paniagua.

The deputy of the province of Costa Rica to the Cortes of Cadiz, the priest Don Florencio del Castillo, turned these enacted on October 18, 1813, a decree granting the title of Villa to several major towns of the territory, among which was including Heredia. Subsequently, on November 11, 1824, in the government of our first Chief of Don Juan Mora Fernández, was enacted Law No. 20, which gave the town of Concepcion de Heredia City category.

The modest thatched chapel built in 1706 was erected a parish of the Immaculate Conception of Cubujuquí in 1736, Carthage Independent, establishing limits to the latter, in the river Virilla, and Esparza, in the Montes del Aguacate. Because the church built in 1760 offered no security to be of adobe, in 1797 began the construction of a new temple, which was to be built to the south, while the former remained in use. This work of masonry, that exists today was completed in 1841. Only been altered by the earthquake of 1851, when it was torn down its main facade, which was rebuilt five years later. This church, now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of San José, in the Ecclesiastical Province of Costa Rica.

With regard to education, in 1751 was founded the first school of Cubujuquí, by Bishop Don Pedro Agustín Morel de Santa Cruz, who put her under the direction of a priest, who gave thirty primers to circulate among children them from attending lessons. In 1831 he ran a School of Music, under the direction of Don Damian Davila and economic aid Don Nicolas Ulloa and Don Rafael Moya, in this school was formed Don Manuel Maria Gutierrez, who composed the music herediano our National Anthem. In rudimentary form was founded in May 1838, the first school for the training of teachers, the initiative presented to the Municipality by Messrs. Ulloa and Mora. For 1843 there were chairs that depended Heredia University of Santo Tomas, in which she was a student Víquez Cleto Gonzalez. On May 6, 1845 established the College of Father Paul, where distinguished people were prepared to our country. The Muni

pality of Heredia, in 1859, established a music school funded by her and the economic contribution of Monsignor Joaquin Llorente y Lafuente Anselmo, first Bishop of Costa Rica, which began under the direction of Don Macedonio Davila, son of Don Damian . On 16 August the following year, the City of Heredia bought a house half a block room located southeast of the square to dedicate to school boys, who was the second property acquired in the country for primary education. The Commune de Heredia, in 1870, he signed with Don José Obaldía to lead, for three years, a school that was called Colegio de Heredia. The March 15, 1875 started the first lessons of St. Augustine College, which remained in use for four years after 1884-1886 was reopened under the direction of Don Juan Flores, from 1904-1914 is set to the name of Liceo de Heredia and the following year led to the Normal School of Costa Rica. The bachelor Segreda Vicente Heredia founded in 1883 a night school for adults. On March 1, 1884 opened the Sacred Heart College, dedicated to secondary education for women. By law No. 5182 of February 15, 1973 in the second administration of Jose Figueres Ferrer, created the National University, which began operations in the former premises of the Normal School of Costa Rica, enclosure now called University Campus Omar Dengo.

On August 6, 1872 the first railroad came to City Hall. In the same year he began construction of the first pipe, which has been a positive element in the development of the city. The plumbing was upgraded and expanded in 1898 and 1906.

The first public lighting in the streets was bluffing. In 1888 was introduced gas lighting system, and May 9, 1897 officially opened the first electric lighting of the city, with the assistance of President Rafael Iglesias Castro.

The name of the block is due to the Captain General Don Alonso Fernández de Heredia, President of the Royal Audiencia of Guatemala, that by giving the title of Villa to village Cubujuquí the Immaculate Conception in 1763, added to this name words Heredia. This situation gave rise, as the Costa Rican historian Carlos Melendez Chaverri, to Heredia, who owes nothing to don Alonso Fernández honor him carrying his name.

TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

Creation and origin

The Constitution of November 30, 1848, in Article 8, first established denominations of province, county and parish district.

In accordance with the above provision, the Act No. 36 of 7 December the same year, in Article 7, was created as Canton Heredia number one province of the same name, with seven districts parish.

In such form Heredia comes from that province.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS

Geology

The central part of the canton of Heredia is geologically formed by volcanic rocks, such as lavas, tuffs and pyroclastic, of Holocene age, the Quaternary period.

The northern part of the canton Heredia Varablanca corresponding to the district, is also composed of materials of that era, in which rocks are volcanic and sedimentary. The volcanic buildings belonging to current and recent volcanics and associated Pyroclastic, which comprise the largest area of ​​the region, and Volcanic materials, such as lavas, tuffs and pyroclastics, north of the hill Chompipe. Sedimentary rocks are Fluvial and colluvial deposits, located northeast of the district, on the banks of rivers and General Patria, near its confluence with the Rio Sucio.

Geomorphology

The southern part of the canton of Heredia, is part of the Volcanic Origin unit, represented by Central Valley Volcanic filling, which corresponds to a flat relief wavy.

The unit is formed on the surface by volcanic rocks, mainly lavas, tuffs and ignimbrites ash covered by a variable thickness. The sequence of lava rests on sedimentary rock type lavas are andesitic. Geomorphologically, this unit is not a valley, but for the political, economic and socio reference all follow naming is considered preferable Central Valley. The technical name is rift valley, due to the presence of a fault all along the foot of the central volcanic highlands, which is evidenced by the existence of thermo-mineral sources, as well as abrupt and aligned by the alleged failure the foothills of that mountain down to the valley, as well as by the presence of unexplained volcanism (Training Pacacua), corresponding to the position of the failure or close to it.

The northern part of the canton of Heredia, which corresponds to Varablanca 5th district, is part of the Volcanic Origin unit, which is divided into two subunits, called Barva and Poas Volcano.

Subunit Barva Volcano, is the largest part of the district, except the area adjacent to villa Varablanca corresponds to the Barva volcano massif, the highest part belongs to that volcano, which is 2906 meters above sea level, its slopes have slopes varied, the area corresponding to the Homeland Basin shows a dominance of slopes greater than 45 °, on top of the volcano was observed ten small cones and craters, some of the larger craters are occupied by lakes such as Danta and Barva gaps, the first is 500 meters in diameter and is the largest crater of the area consists of old lava basalt tended to be more recent and have more andesitic, also there are all kinds of volcanic rocks and lavas, agglomerates and pyroclastics, its origin is largely due to volcanic activity, the area corresponding to the basins of the country and General, shows clear evidence of strong erosion, the last river has been a scarp with a height of 100 to 300 meters and slopes of 50 ° and it is possible that this scarp is due to a collapsing of the area as a result of internal void left by the large amount of material released by the volcano during periods of activity, the hills Chompipe, Delicias, Tibás , Turu, Pats, Zurquí Cacho Achiotal and Black are manifestations of this activity. Subunit Poas Volcano is located in the area adjacent to villa Varablanca; subunit corresponding to the bulk of the same name, is the largest in the country, has slopes with all kinds of slope, in this subunit will find all kinds of volcanic rocks, mainly andesitic, its form is due to the volcanic activity that has sustained for several centuries, where erosion affects you in certain places, but its current form is exclusively the result of the accumulation of different lava flows and pyroclastics.

Altitudes

Elevations in meters above mean sea level, the city center districts of the canton are:

City Hall 1150, 1130 North Villa Mercedes, San Francisco Villa 1124, Villa and Villa Varablanca Barreal 1,003 1,804.

Hydrography

The river system in the southern part of the canton of Heredia, corresponds to the Pacific slope, which belongs to the basin of the Rio Grande de Tarcoles.

The rivers that drain the area are the Virilla, Bermudez with its tributaries the River Quebrada Pirro and Guaira and Burío River with its tributary Quebrada Seca. Guaira La Quebrada born in the region. These rivers have a direction from east to west and northeast to southwest. Burío River, along with the Quebrada Seca, cantonal boundaries are the first one with flowers and one with Barva, just as the river Virilla, with the canton of San José, in the province of the same name.

The river system in the northern part of the canton, which is the district Varablanca, subslope corresponds to the North, the Caribbean slope, which comprises the Sarapiqui river basins and Chirripo.

The first is drained by the Sarapiqui River, with its tributaries the rivers Volcano, San Fernando, San Rafael, as well as by General rivers, Sardinal and Mollejón. These rivers are born in Canton, on the slopes of Volcan Barva and Cacho Black Hill, which range from southeast to northwest and southwest to northeast. Volcano Rivers, Sardinal and General are Sarapiqui canton limits. Also located in Barva Lagoon area.

Chirripo River Basin is irrigated by the river country, with its tributaries rivers and Calderon New Muñoz. These rivers are born in the district, in the hills Chompipe, Delicias, Tibás, Turu, Pats, and Achiotal Zurquí, which present a course from northwest to southeast, and southwest to northeast. The river is the border country with Coronado canton, in the province of San José.

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